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15.3. Conceptual Overview

Multi-site clusters can be considered as “overlay” clusters where each cluster site corresponds to a cluster node in a traditional cluster. The overlay cluster can be managed by a CTR (Cluster Ticket Registry) mechanism. It guarantees that the cluster resources will be highly available across different cluster sites. This is achieved by using so-called tickets that are treated as failover domain between cluster sites, in case a site should be down.
The following list explains the individual components and mechanisms that were introduced for multi-site clusters in more detail.

15.3.1. Components and Concepts Ticket

"Tickets" are, essentially, cluster-wide attributes. A ticket grants the right to run certain resources on a specific cluster site. Resources can be bound to a certain ticket by rsc_ticket dependencies. Only if the ticket is available at a site, the respective resources are started. Vice versa, if the ticket is revoked, the resources depending on that ticket need to be stopped.
The ticket thus is similar to a site quorum; i.e., the permission to manage/own resources associated with that site.
(One can also think of the current have-quorum flag as a special, cluster-wide ticket that is granted in case of node majority.)
These tickets can be granted/revoked either manually by administrators (which could be the default for the classic enterprise clusters), or via an automated CTR mechanism described further below.
A ticket can only be owned by one site at a time. Initially, none of the sites has a ticket. Each ticket must be granted once by the cluster administrator.
The presence or absence of tickets for a site is stored in the CIB as a cluster status. With regards to a certain ticket, there are only two states for a site: true (the site has the ticket) or false (the site does not have the ticket). The absence of a certain ticket (during the initial state of the multi-site cluster) is also reflected by the value false. Dead Man Dependency

A site can only activate the resources safely if it can be sure that the other site has deactivated them. However after a ticket is revoked, it can take a long time until all resources depending on that ticket are stopped "cleanly", especially in case of cascaded resources. To cut that process short, the concept of a Dead Man Dependency was introduced:
  • If the ticket is revoked from a site, the nodes that are hosting dependent resources are fenced. This considerably speeds up the recovery process of the cluster and makes sure that resources can be migrated more quickly.
This can be configured by specifying a loss-policy="fence" in rsc_ticket constraints. CTR (Cluster Ticket Registry)

This is for those scenarios where the tickets management is supposed to be automatic (instead of the administrator revoking the ticket somewhere, waiting for everything to stop, and then granting it on the desired site).
A CTR is a network daemon that handles granting, revoking, and timing out "tickets". The participating clusters would run the daemons that would connect to each other, exchange information on their connectivity details, and vote on which site gets which ticket(s).
A ticket would only be granted to a site once they can be sure that it has been relinquished by the previous owner, which would need to be implemented via a timer in most scenarios. If a site loses connection to its peers, its tickets time out and recovery occurs. After the connection timeout plus the recovery timeout has passed, the other sites are allowed to re-acquire the ticket and start the resources again.
This can also be thought of as a "quorum server", except that it is not a single quorum ticket, but several. Configuration Replication

As usual, the CIB is synchronized within each cluster, but it is not synchronized across cluster sites of a multi-site cluster. You have to configure the resources that will be highly available across the multi-site cluster for every site accordingly.