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Pacemaker 2.0

Configuration Explained

An A-Z guide to Pacemaker's Configuration Options

Edition 13

Written by the Pacemaker project contributors

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The purpose of this document is to definitively explain the concepts used to configure Pacemaker. To achieve this, it will focus exclusively on the XML syntax used to configure Pacemaker's Cluster Information Base (CIB).

Table of Contents

1. Document Conventions
1.1. Typographic Conventions
1.2. Pull-quote Conventions
1.3. Notes and Warnings
2. We Need Feedback!
1. Read-Me-First
1.1. The Scope of this Document
1.2. What Is Pacemaker?
1.3. Cluster Architecture
1.4. Pacemaker Architecture
1.5. Node Redundancy Designs
2. Cluster-Wide Configuration
2.1. Configuration Layout
2.2. CIB Properties
2.3. Cluster Options
3. Cluster Nodes
3.1. Defining a Cluster Node
3.2. Where Pacemaker Gets the Node Name
3.3. Node Attributes
3.3.1. Setting and querying node attributes
3.3.2. Special node attributes
4. Cluster Resources
4.1. What is a Cluster Resource?
4.2. Resource Classes
4.2.1. Open Cluster Framework
4.2.2. Linux Standard Base
4.2.3. Systemd
4.2.4. Upstart
4.2.5. System Services
4.2.6. STONITH
4.2.7. Nagios Plugins
4.3. Resource Properties
4.4. Resource Options
4.4.1. Resource Meta-Attributes
4.4.2. Setting Global Defaults for Resource Meta-Attributes
4.4.3. Resource Instance Attributes
4.5. Resource Operations
4.5.1. Operation Properties
4.5.2. Monitoring Resources for Failure
4.5.3. Monitoring Resources When Administration is Disabled
4.5.4. Setting Global Defaults for Operations
4.5.5. When Implicit Operations Take a Long Time
4.5.6. Multiple Monitor Operations
4.5.7. Disabling a Monitor Operation
5. Resource Constraints
5.1. Scores
5.1.1. Infinity Math
5.2. Deciding Which Nodes a Resource Can Run On
5.2.1. Location Properties
5.2.2. Asymmetrical "Opt-In" Clusters
5.2.3. Symmetrical "Opt-Out" Clusters
5.2.4. What if Two Nodes Have the Same Score
5.3. Specifying the Order in which Resources Should Start/Stop
5.3.1. Ordering Properties
5.3.2. Optional and mandatory ordering
5.4. Placing Resources Relative to other Resources
5.4.1. Colocation Properties
5.4.2. Mandatory Placement
5.4.3. Advisory Placement
5.4.4. Colocation by Node Attribute
5.5. Resource Sets
5.6. Ordering Sets of Resources
5.6.1. Ordered Set
5.6.2. Ordering Multiple Sets
5.6.3. Resource Set OR Logic
5.7. Colocating Sets of Resources
6. Fencing
6.1. What Is Fencing?
6.2. Why Is Fencing Necessary?
6.3. Fence Devices
6.4. Fence Agents
6.5. When a Fence Device Can Be Used
6.6. Limitations of Fencing Resources
6.7. Special Options for Fencing Resources
6.8. Unfencing
6.9. Fence Devices Dependent on Other Resources
6.10. Configuring Fencing
6.10.1. Example Fencing Configuration
6.11. Fencing Topologies
6.11.1. Example Dual-Layer, Dual-Device Fencing Topologies
6.12. Remapping Reboots
7. Alerts
7.1. Alert Agents
7.2. Alert Recipients
7.3. Alert Meta-Attributes
7.4. Alert Instance Attributes
7.5. Alert Filters
7.6. Using the Sample Alert Agents
7.7. Writing an Alert Agent
8. Rules
8.1. Rule Properties
8.2. Node Attribute Expressions
8.3. Date/Time Expressions
8.3.1. Date Specifications
8.3.2. Durations
8.3.3. Example Time-Based Expressions
8.4. Resource Expressions
8.4.1. Example Resource-Based Expressions
8.5. Operation Expressions
8.5.1. Example Operation-Based Expressions
8.6. Using Rules to Determine Resource Location
8.6.1. Location Rules Based on Other Node Properties
8.6.2. Using score-attribute Instead of score
8.7. Using Rules to Define Options
8.7.1. Using Rules to Control Resource Options
8.7.2. Using Rules to Control Resource Defaults
8.7.3. Using Rules to Control Cluster Options
9. Advanced Configuration
9.1. Specifying When Recurring Actions are Performed
9.2. Handling Resource Failure
9.2.1. Failure Counts
9.2.2. Failure Response
9.3. Moving Resources
9.3.1. Moving Resources Manually
9.3.2. Moving Resources Due to Connectivity Changes
9.3.3. Migrating Resources
9.4. Tracking Node Health
9.4.1. Node Health Attributes
9.4.2. Node Health Strategy
9.4.3. Measuring Node Health
9.5. Reloading Services After a Definition Change
10. Advanced Resource Types
10.1. Groups - A Syntactic Shortcut
10.1.1. Group Properties
10.1.2. Group Options
10.1.3. Group Instance Attributes
10.1.4. Group Contents
10.1.5. Group Constraints
10.1.6. Group Stickiness
10.2. Clones - Resources That Can Have Multiple Active Instances
10.2.1. Anonymous versus Unique Clones
10.2.2. Promotable clones
10.2.3. Clone Properties
10.2.4. Clone Options
10.2.5. Clone Contents
10.2.6. Clone Instance Attributes
10.2.7. Clone Constraints
10.2.8. Clone Stickiness
10.2.9. Clone Resource Agent Requirements
10.2.10. Monitoring Promotable Clone Resources
10.2.11. Determining Which Instance is Promoted
10.3. Bundles - Isolated Environments
10.3.1. Bundle Prerequisites
10.3.2. Bundle Properties
10.3.3. Bundle Container Properties
10.3.4. Bundle Network Properties
10.3.5. Bundle Storage Properties
10.3.6. Bundle Primitive
10.3.7. Bundle Node Attributes
10.3.8. Bundle Meta-Attributes
10.3.9. Limitations of Bundles
11. Reusing Parts of the Configuration
11.1. Reusing Resource Definitions
11.1.1. Configuring Resources with Templates
11.1.2. Using Templates in Constraints
11.1.3. Using Templates in Resource Sets
11.2. Reusing Rules, Options and Sets of Operations
11.3. Tagging Configuration Elements
11.3.1. Configuring Tags
11.3.2. Using Tags in Constraints and Resource Sets
12. Utilization and Placement Strategy
12.1. Utilization attributes
12.2. Placement Strategy
12.3. Allocation Details
12.3.1. Which node is preferred to get consumed first when allocating resources?
12.3.2. Which node has more free capacity?
12.3.3. Which resource is preferred to be assigned first?
12.4. Limitations and Workarounds
13. Access Control Lists (ACLs)
13.1. ACL Prerequisites
13.2. ACL Configuration
13.3. ACL Roles
13.4. ACL Targets and Groups
13.5. ACL Examples
14. Status — Here be dragons
14.1. Node Status
14.2. Transient Node Attributes
14.3. Operation History
14.3.1. Simple Operation History Example
14.3.2. Complex Operation History Example
15. Multi-Site Clusters and Tickets
15.1. Challenges for Multi-Site Clusters
15.2. Conceptual Overview
15.2.1. Ticket
15.2.2. Dead Man Dependency
15.2.3. Cluster Ticket Registry
15.2.4. Configuration Replication
15.3. Configuring Ticket Dependencies
15.4. Managing Multi-Site Clusters
15.4.1. Granting and Revoking Tickets Manually
15.4.2. Granting and Revoking Tickets via a Cluster Ticket Registry
15.4.3. General Management of Tickets
15.5. For more information
A. Sample Configurations
A.1. Empty
A.2. Simple
A.3. Advanced Configuration
B. Revision History

List of Figures

1.1. Example Cluster Stack
1.2. Internal Components
1.3. Active/Passive Redundancy
1.4. Shared Failover
1.5. N to N Redundancy
5.1. Visual representation of the four resources' start order for the above constraints
5.2. Visual representation of the start order for two ordered sets of unordered resources
5.3. Visual representation of the start order for the three sets defined above
5.4. Visual representation of the above example (resources are placed from left to right)

List of Tables

2.1. CIB Properties
2.2. Cluster Options
3.1. Node attributes with special significance
4.1. Properties of a Primitive Resource
4.2. Meta-attributes of a Primitive Resource
4.3. Properties of an Operation
5.1. Attributes of a rsc_location Element
5.2. Attributes of a rsc_order Element
5.3. Attributes of a rsc_colocation Constraint
5.4. Attributes of a resource_set Element
6.1. Additional Properties of Fencing Resources
6.2. Properties of Fencing Levels
7.1. Meta-Attributes of an Alert
7.2. Environment variables passed to alert agents
8.1. Attributes of a rule Element
8.2. Attributes of an expression Element
8.3. Built-in Node Attributes
8.4. Attributes of a date_expression Element
8.5. Attributes of a date_spec Element
8.6. Attributes of a duration Element
8.7. Attributes of an rsc_expression Element
8.8. Attributes of an op_expression Element
9.1. Common Options for a ping Resource
9.2. Allowed Values for Node Health Attributes
9.3. Node Health Strategies
10.1. Properties of a Group Resource
10.2. Properties of a Clone Resource
10.3. Clone-specific configuration options
10.4. Additional colocation constraint options for promotable clone resources
10.5. Additional colocation set options relevant to promotable clone resources
10.6. Additional ordered set options relevant to promotable clone resources
10.7. Role implications of OCF return codes
10.8. Environment variables supplied with Clone notify actions
10.9. Extra environment variables supplied for promotable clones
10.10. XML Attributes of a bundle Element
10.11. XML attributes of a docker, podman, or rkt Element
10.12. XML attributes of a network Element
10.13. Attributes of a port-mapping Element
10.14. Attributes of a storage-mapping Element
13.1. Properties of an ACL Role
13.2. Properties of an ACL Permission
13.3. Properties of an ACL Target
13.4. Properties of an ACL Group
13.5. Properties of an ACL Role Reference
14.1. Authoritative Sources for State Information
14.2. Node Status Fields
14.3. Contents of an lrm_rsc_op job

List of Examples

2.1. An empty configuration
3.1. Example Corosync cluster node entry
3.2. Result of using crm_attribute to specify which kernel pcmk-1 is running
4.1. A system resource definition
4.2. An OCF resource definition
4.3. An LSB resource with cluster options
4.4. An example OCF resource with instance attributes
4.5. Displaying the metadata for the Dummy resource agent template
4.6. An OCF resource with a non-default start timeout
4.7. An OCF resource with a recurring health check
4.8. An OCF resource with custom timeouts for its implicit actions
4.9. An OCF resource with two recurring health checks, performing different levels of checks specified via OCF_CHECK_LEVEL.
4.10. Example of an OCF resource with a disabled health check
5.1. Opt-in location constraints for two resources
5.2. Opt-out location constraints for two resources
5.3. Constraints where a resource prefers two nodes equally
5.4. Optional and mandatory ordering constraints
5.5. Mandatory colocation constraint for two resources
5.6. Mandatory anti-colocation constraint for two resources
5.7. Advisory colocation constraint for two resources
5.8. A set of 3 resources
5.9. A chain of ordered resources
5.10. A chain of ordered resources expressed as a set
5.11. Ordered sets of unordered resources
5.12. Advanced use of set ordering - Three ordered sets, two of which are internally unordered
5.13. Resource Set "OR" logic: Three ordered sets, where the first set is internally unordered with "OR" logic
5.14. Colocation chain as individual constraints, where A is placed first, then B, then C, then D
5.15. Equivalent colocation chain expressed using resource_set
5.16. Using colocated sets to specify a shared dependency
5.17. Colocation in which the members of the middle set have no interdependencies, and the last set listed applies only to instances in the master role
6.1. Obtaining a list of Fence Agent Parameters
6.2. An IPMI-based Fencing Resource
6.3. Fencing topology with different devices for different nodes
7.1. Simple alert configuration
7.2. Alert configuration with recipient
7.3. Alert configuration with meta-attributes
7.4. Alert configuration with instance attributes
7.5. Alert configuration to receive only node events and fencing events
7.6. Alert configuration to be called when certain node attributes change
7.7. Sending cluster events as SNMP traps
7.8. Sending cluster events as e-mails
8.1. True if now is any time in the year 2005
8.2. Equivalent expression
8.3. 9am-5pm Monday-Friday
8.4. 9am-6pm Monday through Friday or anytime Saturday
8.5. 9am-5pm or 9pm-12am Monday through Friday
8.6. Mondays in March 2005
8.7. A full moon on Friday the 13th
8.8. True for all ocf:heartbeat:IPaddr2 resources
8.9. Provider doesn’t apply to non-OCF resources
8.10. True for all monitor actions
8.11. True for all monitor actions with a 10 second interval
8.12. Prevent resource "webserver" from running on node3
8.13. Prevent resource "webserver" from running on node3 using rule
8.14. A sample nodes section for use with score-attribute
8.15. Defining different resource options based on the node name
8.16. Change resource-stickiness during working hours
8.17. Set all IPaddr2 resources to stopped
8.18. Set all monitor action timeouts to 7 seconds
8.19. Set the monitor action timeout on all IPaddr2 resources with a given monitor interval to 8 seconds
8.20. Schedule a maintenance window for 9 to 11 p.m. CDT Sept. 20, 2019
9.1. Specifying a Base for Recurring Action Intervals
9.2. An example ping cluster resource that checks node connectivity once every minute
9.3. Don’t run a resource on unconnected nodes
9.4. Run only on nodes connected to three or more ping targets.
9.5. Prefer the node with the most connected ping nodes
9.6. How the cluster translates the above location constraint
9.7. A more complex example of choosing a location based on connectivity
9.8. The DRBD agent’s logic for supporting reload
9.9. The DRBD Agent Advertising Support for the reload Operation
9.10. Parameter that can be changed using reload
10.1. A group of two primitive resources
10.2. How the cluster sees a group resource
10.3. Some constraints involving groups
10.4. A clone that runs a web server on all nodes
10.5. Some constraints involving clones
10.6. Constraints involving promotable clone resources
10.7. Colocate C and D with A’s and B’s master instances
10.8. Start C and D after first promoting A and B
10.9. Notification variables
10.10. Monitoring both states of a promotable clone resource
10.11. Explicitly preferring node1 to be promoted to master
10.12. A bundle for a containerized web server
11.1. Resource template for a migratable Xen virtual machine
11.2. Xen primitive resource using a resource template
11.3. Equivalent Xen primitive resource not using a resource template
11.4. Xen resource overriding template values
11.5. Referencing rules from other constraints
11.6. Referencing attributes, options, and operations from other resources
11.7. Tag referencing three resources
11.8. Constraint using a tag
11.9. Equivalent constraints without tags
12.1. Specifying CPU and RAM capacities of two nodes
12.2. Specifying CPU and RAM consumed by several resources
14.1. A bare-bones status entry for a healthy node cl-virt-1
14.2. A set of transient node attributes for node cl-virt-1
14.3. A record of the apcstonith resource
14.4. A monitor operation (determines current state of the apcstonith resource)
14.5. Resource history of a pingd clone with multiple jobs
15.1. Constraint that fences node if ticketA is revoked
15.2. Constraint that demotes rsc1 if ticketA is revoked
15.3. Ticket constraint for multiple resources
A.1. An Empty Configuration
A.2. A simple configuration with two nodes, some cluster options and a resource
A.3. An advanced configuration with groups, clones and STONITH